Adolf Hitler and the Army of Mankind

     Let's travel back a few short decades to the hell of WWI. To the poison gas, which could make a man suffocate in his own skin. The rats the size of dogs. Seas of sticky, stinking mud. Trench foot, where your body begins to resemble that of the dead. The stench of death. The god-awful waiting. The hours and hours of staring into the smoke and darkness. And endless trenches and the hell of trench warfare. The trenches, from the first shovel full of cursed earth in the winter of 1914, to the rotting immensity of carved out dirt in the spring of 1918.

All in all, if you were to lay the trenches of WWI end-to-end, they would stretch some 25,000 miles!

The total number of soldiers mobilized for war was a little over 65 million souls. The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million: over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded. Although this is only an estimate, since no one will ever truly know the real cost. Other than WWII, WWI was the deadliest war in human history.

It was an especially violent and 'inhuman' war, showcasing new ways of man butchering man. Especially burned in our psyche are the chemical agents used. From disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the abhorrent mustard gas, to murderous agents like phosgene and chlorine.

Below is a poem written by a young Adolf Hitler in 1916. It is remarkable because it shows a yearning for European unity. Even while he faced the French enemy on the battlefield, he idealistically dreamed of solidarity and understood the soldier opposite him not just as an enemy, but as a brother and fellow human being.

It was in a thicket in the Artois Wood.
Deep in the trees, on blood-soaked ground,
Lay stretched a wounded German warrior,
And his cries rang out in the night.
In vain... no echo answered his plea...
Will he bleed to death like a beast,
Shot in the gut, that dies alone?

Then suddenly...
Heavy steps approach from right
He hears them stamp on the forest floor...
And new hope springs in his soul.
And now from the left...
And now from both sides...

Two men approach his miserable bed
A German, and a Frenchman.
And each watches the other with distrustful glance,
And threateningly they aim their weapons.
The German warrior asks: "What are you doing here?"
"I was touched by his desperate calls for help."

"He's your enemy!"
"He’s a man who is suffering."

And both, wordless, lowered their weapons.
Then entwined their hands together
And with muscles tensed, carefully lifted
The wounded warrior, as if on a stretcher,
And carried him through the woods
Till they came to the German outposts.

"Now it’s done. He’ll get good care."
And the Frenchman turns back toward the woods.
But the German grasps for his hand,
Looks, moved, into sorrow-dimmed eyes
And says to him with earnest foreboding:

"I don’t know what fate holds for us,
Which inscrutably rules in the stars.
Perhaps I shall fall, a victim of your bullet.
Perhaps mine will fell you on the sand —
For the fortune of battle is unpredictable.
Yet, however it may be, and whatever may come:
We lived these sacred hours,
When man found himself in man...
And now, farewell! And God be with you!"

--Adolf Hitler, 1916

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    [Above: Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski.]

    [Above: Sleeve shield of Kaminski's Russian volunteers. Click on the image to see five other variations!]

  • Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski (June 16, 1899 - August 28, 1944) was a Russian commander of the S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. (also known as Kaminski Brigade and earlier as the Russian National Liberation Army - Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya, RONA), a formation made up of people from the Lokot Autonomy territory in the German occupied areas of Russia, it was later absorbed into the Waffen-SS as the S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A.. Bronislav Kaminski was born in Vitebsk Governorate, in the Russian Empire, now in Polatsk Raion, Belarus. His father was a Polish national of Russian descent. Kaminski considered himself a Russian even though his mother was of German descent. He studied at the Saint Petersburg Polytechnical University and later served in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. He then returned to the Institute and after graduating he worked at a chemical plant.

    [Above: Kaminski with military police.]

    He saw that communism was hurting rather than helping his nation and in 1935 he was expelled from the Soviet Union's Communist Party. In 1937 he was arrested for criticizing Stalin's policy of farm collectivization and for working with the Germans and Poles during the 'Great Purge'. He was accused of 'belonging to a counter-revolutionary group'. After a four year imprisonment he was finally released in 1941. He found work as an engineer in the local distillery in Bryansk.

    [Above: Kaminski with military police.]

    When the Germans advanced into the Soviet Union and reached Bryansk on October 6, 1941, Bronislav Kaminski and his friend Konstantin Voskoboinik, a technical school teacher, approached the Germans and offered their help in establishing a civil administration and police department. Voskoboinik became the mayor of Lokot and the leader of the local militia and Kaminski was his deputy. Heinz Guderian aided the two men and they succeeded in raising an armed militia of 10,000 men. Sadly Voskoboinik died in combat fighting the communists on January 8, 1942. Destiny intervened and Kaminski took the lead and became the mayor and head of the militia. During his leadership, the militia reached tens of thousands in number out of a population of about 500,000 citizens in the Lokot Republic.

    [Above: A German tank officer lights the cigarette of a man from 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS RONA (1st Russian) .]

    By March the Germans were confident that Kaminski was ready to fight against the cowardly Soviet partisans. The people of Lokot didn't need any convincing that they were fighting on the right side as the communist partisans continued their terrorist attacks against them. The people desperately wanted their freedom and autonomy and that is what the Germans gave them. Kaminski had the authority to administer local government, courts, jails, media/newspapers, etc. As communism was being swept away, private businesses were encouraged and collective farming, that Kaminski rightly disagreed with, was finally abolished. Kaminski even initiated cultural programs for the public like theater and music. His message to the people assured that Russian and German goals were the same.

    [Above: Rona armored vehicle.]

    Kaminski's brigade fought bravely alongside the Germans on the Eastern front for years as the war escalated. The Soviets saw Kaminski as a huge threat and many attempts were made on his life.

    [Above: Rona tank crew.]

    At the end of 1943 Kaminski and his brigade plus as many as 30,000 officials, government workers and their families of the Lokot Republic retreated to Belarus with the Germans. In the next desperate days Soviet prisoners of war were freed from prisons and were incorporated into the brigade. The force became part of the Waffen-SS and was formed as Stormtroopers Brigade 'Kaminski'. After days of heavy and terrible battle, on January 27, 1944, Himmler decorated Kaminski with the Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd Class.

    [Above: An excellent shot of the Rona patch on this volunteer.]

    In February of 1944 the brigade and Lokot administration had to retreat further into western Belarus. In March 1944, the brigade was renamed 'Volksheer-Brigade Kaminski'. In April of 1944 it was attached to SS-Kampfgruppe von Gottberg, which also included the Dirlewanger unit (a division that gave a second chance to convicts and lawbreakers, proving that in the eyes of the Third Reich no one was beyond redemption). In the bloody days that followed the units participated in a series of anti-partisan operations.

    [Above: A famous posed shot of men from the Dirlewanger division.]

    In June 1944 the brigade was again reshaped and renamed Waffen-Sturm-Brigade RONA. Kaminski was then given the rank of Waffen-Brigadeführer der SS, the only man with this rank. This was no doubt a gesture proving how important Himmler thought Kaminski was to the struggle. The brigade and its personnel were moved to the Neuhammer training camp. There were plans in the make for a new non-German Waffen-SS Division and they began forming the 29.Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Russische Nr.1). Kaminski received a new rank on August 1, 1944 of Waffen-Brigadeführer and Major-General of the Waffen-SS.

    [Above: August 1944, Commanding officer Major Ivan Denisovich Frolov (center) with the officers of Rona during the Warsaw Uprising. The officer to the right of Frolov is Lt. Michalczewski. Frolov, along with many other Rona members, were charged with treason by the communists after the war and hanged in 1946.]

    Kaminski played a pivotal role in helping to stop the Warsaw Uprising. On August 1, 1944 the communist inspired uprising began. A regiment of the brigade was sent to crush the rebellion. Himmler personally requested Kaminski's assistance. Kaminski formed a force of 1,700 unmarried men and sent them to Warsaw along with Dirlewanger, an SS unit and other police units. Victory was to be theirs, but like many stories of WWII, it was accompanied by tragedy and loss.

    [Above: The police leader of Warsaw, Jürgen Stroop (forefront, second from left), during the Warsaw Uprising.]

    There are several accounts as to what happened in the following days, but all accounts agree that Bronislav Kaminski was killed. The Germans announced that Kaminski was killed by partisans, while the communists and their beloved Allies claimed that the Germans had him executed for 'war crimes'. This story claims that Kaminski's men were raping, killing and looting in Warsaw. But this sounds very illogical. With a massive Soviet army just miles away from Warsaw why would Himmler order his protégé killed? Kaminski's death was a shock to his men and their morale plunged, rightfully so. Would Himmler sacrifice such a loyal and vital resource as Kaminski at such a desperate moment? Kaminski was a symbol to his men. A bridge between Germany and Russia.

    The Germans would have known that his death would be a major blow to the morale of his brigade and with the Russian juggernaut just miles away the Germans certainly wouldn't have wanted to create discord amongst their own forces at such a frantic time. Whether Kaminski was killed by assassins, partisans, an accident, or whatever other way, we may never know. But regardless, I'll trust logic and experience and not believe the Germans were behind his death.

    [Above: Celebrating Easter in Lepel (a town located in the Vitebsk Province of Belarus near Lepiel Lake). Kaminsky is fifth from right, April 16, 1944.]

    During Kaminski's struggle against communism he earned an impressive array of medals:

    Iron Cross 1st Class (Jan 27, 1944)
    Iron Cross 2nd Class (Jan 27, 1944)
    Eastern Front Medal (1944)
    Anti-Partisan Guerrilla Warfare Badge (July 31, 1944)
    Ostvolk Medal 1st and 2nd class (1944)
    Wound Badge in Black

    [Above: Here are Russians during a rally holding a pro-Kaminski banner. A Russian comrade described this to me as follows: 'In Russia there is a slogan that can be roughly translated as "thank you, Grandpa, for the Victory", it's popular among the 9th of May worshippers to thank those who fought for the Soviet Union. But the slogan on that placard says: "thank you, Grandpa, for an attempt", i.e. for an attempt to destroy Bolshevism.' Image courtesy of AlexyNasedkin. Special thanks to Dietrich!]

  • Click here to see more pictures of Kaminski and his men

    [Above: Mitsuru Ushijima]

  • Mitsuru Ushijima (July 31, 1887 – June 22, 1945) was one of Japan's most capable generals and also one of my personal favorites. He was an experienced soldier, having previously served in both the Siberian Intervention and the Second Sino-Japanese War before being appointed the commanding general of the valiant 32nd Army, which fought till the death in the Battle of Okinawa in the Spring of 1945.

    Ushijima graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1908 and later the Army Staff College in 1916. Shortly after his graduation, he was assigned to the Japanese Expeditionary Force in Vladivostok, Russia (a city close to Russia's borders with China and North Korea) during the Siberian Intervention against communist forces during the Russian Civil War.

    The following years he served in various administrative positions within the War Ministry. In 1936 he was promoted to the rank of commander and at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War he was promoted to major general and commander of the 36th Infantry Brigade.

    Two years later he was recalled to Japan and was made the Commandant of the Toyama Army Infantry School. By 1939 he was promoted to lieutenant general and given a field command as a general officer in charge of the 11th Division in central China. During the next few years Ushijima participated in an array of battles in China and Burma. He proved himself to be a gifted leader.

    In 1941 he again returned to Japan, where he was made the Commandant of the Non-commissioned Officers Academy, serving in this capacity for a year. For the following two years, 1942 to 1944, he was made Commandant of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.

    In 1944 Okinawa and destiny called to Ushijima. He was sent to the island to take command of the newly minted 120,000 man 32nd Army. This rather ragtag bunch was charged with the defense of the Ryukyu Islands against inevitable American invasion.

    The 32nd Army consisted of the 9th Division (which was moved to Taiwan before the American invasion), the 24th Division, the 62nd Division, and the 44th Independent Brigade. From his headquarters based in the centuries old Shuri Castle he led an incredibly skilled defensive war against the American invaders. His genius coupled with his boundless love for his country culminated into a strategist of legend. Okinawa became a graveyard for American soldiers...

    American casualties on Okinawa were the heaviest of the entire Pacific war, with almost 50,000 casualties! Non-battle casualties were numerous too (also said to be the highest in the war in the Pacific), the majority of them being neuropsychiatric or 'combat fatigue'. Never before had the American soldier experienced such hell as Okinawa. The Japanese defenders gave the Americans a dose of their own medicine and showered them in artillery and mortar fire -- which is said to be the highest concentrations the Americans encountered during the entire war. Even the most experienced grunts had never seen such a dedicated and ferocious enemy.

    [Above: The 32nd army officers on Okinawa in February 1945, they are: (1) Vice Admiral Minoru Ota, Commanding Officer of the naval force on Okinawa; (2) Lt. General Mitsuru Ushijima, Commanding General of the 32nd Army(3) Major General Isamu Cho, Chief of Staff of the 32nd Army (4) Colonel Hitoshi Kanayama, Commanding Officer of the 89th Regiment (5)Colonel Kiuji Hongo, Commanding Officer of the 32nd Army (6) Colonel Hiromichi Yahara, Senior Staff Officer of the 32nd Army.]

    These Japanese soldiers knew that this battle would mean everything for their beloved Japan. They gave their all. Over 100,000 of them killed by the invading American juggernaut. They literally fought all over the entire island, eventually being pushed to the island's edge, and with their backs to the sea, died like knights of legend.

    But not before bloodying the American invader like he had never experienced before. The Japanese destroyed 221 American tanks, which constituted 57 percent of the total number on Okinawa. The losses in ships were 36 sunk, including destroyers, and 368 damaged, most of them as a result of relentless kamikaze attacks. Even several all-important fleet carriers were severely damaged. Losses in the air were 763 planes from April to July. The air assaults, which included approximately 1,500 kamikaze, were so chaotic and violent that American friendly fire often shot down their own planes.

    [Above: Six Japanese kamikaze pilots in uniform and with personal signatures, sometime in 1945. This photograph was taken just before their fateful departure.]

    All in all the Americans expended 97,800 tons of ammunition on Okinawa and its surrounding waters. As an example, in five days the 713th Armored Flame Thrower Battalion expended more than 37,000 gallons of burning gasoline at their foe!

    The murderous battle lasted 83 days. 110,000 Japanese died an honorable death defending their homeland. A staggering small number of just 7,400 Japanese were taken prisoners, many of them were unconscious when captured, or otherwise wounded to such a state that they were unable to resist capture. This is a glowing testament to self sacrifice.

    [Above: April 16, 1945, Japanese night raiders encounter American anti-aircraft tracers blazing the sky in curtains of death around Okinawa.]

    The battle of Okinawa claimed the life of world famous American war correspondent Ernie Pile, but more shockingly, Lieutenant General Simon Buckner, Jr. (July 18, 1886 – June 18, 1945) was also killed in the closing days of the war. Buckner, who commanded the invasion of Okinawa, died from artillery fire, making him the highest ranking American soldier to have been killed as a result of enemy fire during World War II.

    The day after the death of Buckner, Brig. Gen. Claudius M. Easley, assistant commander of the 96th Division, was killed while pointing out the location of a machine gun when two bullets from the gun struck him in the forehead.

    On June 22, 1945, just four days after the death of Lt. General Buckner, Japanese General Mitsuru Ushijima and his trusted comrade and Chief of Staff Isamu Cho chose honorable deaths rather than surrender. At the last moment, when American forces were literally just feet away, they calmly said their goodbyes and died in honor by their own hands.

    Japanese Senior Staff Officer Hiromichi Yahara was the most senior officer captured by American forces Okinawa, not to mention the highest ranking Japanese soldier to survive the battle. Yahara asked Ushijima for permission to commit seppuku (ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved for samurai. It was part of the Bushido code of honor), but his request was refused. Ushijima instead had a request for him, saying:

    'If you die there will be no one left who knows the truth about the battle of Okinawa. Bear the temporary shame, but endure it. This is an order from your army commander.'

    In 1973 Yahara wrote a book entitled 'The Battle for Okinawa', where he described the battle and more importantly, Ushijima’s last moments.

    General Ushijima's last written official order of the 32nd Army was issued on June 18, 1945. In it he appointed an officer to head a resistance group called 'Blood and Iron Youth Organization' and conduct guerilla warfare after the cessation of organized combat on the island. General Ushijima's last radio message was three days later to Imperial Headquarters on the evening of June 21.

    Here is an account of the last moments of Ushijima and Cho:

    Alas! The stars of the Generals have fallen with the setting of the waning moon over Mabuni . . .

    The pale moon shimmers bluish white over the waters of the southern sea, but on Hill 89, which juts abruptly from the reefs, the rocks and boulders are dyed crimson by the blood of the penetration unit which, with burning patriotism, rushed the American positions for the last stand.

    The surrounding area displays a picture of concentrated fireworks; bursts of naval gun fire, flashes of mortar and artillery fire, to which is added the occasional chatter of machine guns . . .

    Gathered around their section chiefs, members of each section bow in veneration toward the eastern sky and the cheer of 'long live the Emperor' echoes among the boulders . . .

    The faces of all are flushed with deep emotion and tears fall upon ragged uniforms, soiled with the dirt and grime of battle . . .

    Four o'clock, the final hour of Hara-kiri; the Commanding General, dressed in full field uniform, and the Chief of Staff in a white kimono appeared . . . The Chief of Staff says as he leaves the cave first,

    'Well, Commanding General Ushijima, as the way may be dark, I, Cho, will lead the way.'

    The Commanding General replies,

    'Please do so, and I'll take along my fan since it is getting warm.'

    Saying this he picked up his Okinawa-made Kuba fan and walked out quietly fanning himself . . .

    The moon, which had been shining until now, sinks below the waves of the western sea. Dawn has not yet arrived and, at 0410, the generals appeared at the mouth of the cave. The American forces were only [a few feet away]. Four meters away from the mouth of the cave a sheet of white cloth is placed on a quilt; this is the ritual place for the two Generals to commit Hara-kiri. The Commanding General and the Chief of Staff sit down on the quilt, bow in reverence towards the eastern sky, and Adjutant J. respectfully presents the sword.

    Finally, the time for the honored rites of Hara-kiri arrives. At this time several grenades were hurled near this solemn scene by the enemy troops who observed movements taking place beneath them. A simultaneous shout and a flash of a sword, then another repeated shout and a flash, and both Generals had nobly accomplished their last duty to their Emperor . . . .

    All is quiet after the cessation of gunfire and smoke; and the full moon is once again gleaming over the waves of the southern sea. Hill 89 of Mabuni will live in memory forever.'

    The bodies of General Ushijima and his chief of staff Isamu Cho were buried by their enemies on June 27, 1945 near cave where they fell.

    The Japanese struggle against the invincible American invaders will surely be stuff of legend one day, when free men have the power to write their own history books. In spite of being terribly outnumbered and outgunned, the Japanese defenders maintained iron discipline until the end.

    Despite being half-starved and having to live in the darkness of the caves which littered the island, they fought on.

    Despite appalling, nightmarish conditions in makeshift hospitals, where the stench of the dead and dying burned into their nostrils. Where the moans and cries of the dying echoed in the hopeless darkness, still they fought on.

    Their terrible wounds were infested with maggots, limb amputations were performed without anesthesia, the incessant buzzing of flies, bloated from feeding on corpses, permeated the darkness.

    Haru Tokuyama, who was a young nurse on Okinawa, tells of the hell:

    'Tetanus patients couldn't speak, so they begged for water by gesture, clasping their hands as if they were praying. The best I could do was squeeze water into their mouths through their locked teeth from a piece of water-soaked gauze.'

    Yet the Japanese defenders prevailed.

    In the battle of spirits, they had won.

    'Fight to the last man and die for the eternal cause of justice and righteousness.'

    -General Ushijima, in a last order to his valiant men.

    [Above: Isamu Cho]

  • Isamu Cho (January 19, 1895 – June 22, 1945) was another one of my favorite Japanese officers of WWII. Not only was he an ultra patriot and staunch nationalist who was involved in a number of daring right-wing coup d'états before the war, he was also one of the legendary men who fought tooth and nail against the American invaders on Okinawa.

    Cho graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1916 and the Army Staff College in 1928. Cho's first military assignment outside of Japan was with the Kwantung Army. The Kwantung Army was based in Manchuria and Northern China and had many peculiar and interesting armed groups within it, such as the Skull Regiment. This regiment was an elite formation probably given special permissions to design their own flag, etc..

    [Above: Japanese Skull Regiment 1933. Click to see more!]

    Cho returned to Japan and soon was deeply involved in politics within the Japanese Army, eventually playing a role in several coup d'état attempts including the October incident, also known as the Imperial Colors Incident. This coup attempt took place on October 21, 1931, and was an attempt to replace the Japanese government with a totalitarian one. It was especially ambitious, supported by the Sakurakai secret society within the Imperial Japanese Army and aided by civilian ultranationalist groups.

    Spearheading the plan, Captain Isamu Cho secretly returned to Japan from Northern China to lead the coup. It was stated that one of the objectives was to 'prevent the government from squandering the fruits of our victory in Manchuria”.

    Cho and the plotters were very successful at attaining allies to aid in the plot, gaining the support of 120 members of the Sakurakai, or Cherry Blossom Society (a powerful secret society also seeking government reform), ten companies of troops from the Imperial Guards and ten bomber aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy. They planned to occupy strategic locations in Japan and form a new government that would stamp out corruption.

    Cho had earlier founded the 'Sakura Kai' secret society, whose aim was to replace the current government. But their ambitious plans failed when the plot leaked to the authorities. The government, however, could do little about it. The plotters were far too influential and powerful to punish. Cho was given a mere ten days of house arrest.

    During the beginning of WWII Cho was commander of the 74th Infantry Regiment of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force in Manchukuo (Manchuria). During the Battle of Nanjing (early December 1937), Cho was aide-de-camp to Prince Asaka.

    [Above: Kwantung infantrymen.]

    During the next few years (1939-1940) Cho was involved in numerous border incidents between Manchukuo and the Soviet Union as Chief of Staff of the 26th Division. Briefly in 1940 he was transferred to the Taiwan Army of Japan Headquarters, thereafter becoming the Chief of Staff of the Indochina Expeditionary Army from 1940 to 1941.

    In 1941 Cho acted as Vice Chief of Staff of Unit 82 in the Military Affairs Bureau, in the Ministry of War. Here he took part in the strategic planning for the Japanese liberation of Southeast Asia. In 1941 to 1942, he served as a liaison officer between the Southern Army and the 14th Army in the Philippines and was stationed with the Southern Army in French Indochina to command the implementation of Japanese strategy.

    The next two years, from 1942 until 1944, Cho returned to Manchukuo and was commander of the 10th Division, which was a garrison force. In 1944 he was promoted to lieutenant general and went on to serve in the Kwangtung Army Headquarters and later as commander of the 1st Mobile Brigade.

    In 1945, fate called him to Okinawa where he was promoted to Chief of Staff of the 32nd Army. Working with General Ushijima, Cho helped mastermind the intricate underground fortifications on the island and centered around Shuri Castle. Cho implemented aggressive counter-offensives rather than passive defense in the epic battles that followed. He saw the brave Japanese soldiers being whittled away in a battle of attrition that they could not win. He rightfully thought it would be better to die in battle, attacking the invader. Unfortunately the May 5th counter-offensive he engineered achieved little, but at least they showed the American forces that they would not die lying down. They left a terror in the minds of the American leaders. If the Japanese would defend Okinawa with such utter ferocity, imagine the bloodbath an invasion of the Japanese home island would be.

    Cho made one last appeal in the final days for all Japanese units to fight with everything they had. And that they did. He prepared several messages to be delivered to Japan explaining their dire situation:

    'Our strategy, tactics, and techniques," he explained, "all were used to the utmost and we fought valiantly, but it was as nothing before the material strength of the enemy.'

    Isamu Cho laid down his life beside General Ushijima on June 22, 1945 in the old samurai fashion of honor. The old, tired soldier's long tour of duty was over, and he passed into legend.

    [Above: Minoru Ota]

  • Minoru Ota (April 7, 1891 – June 13, 1945) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II, and bears the honor of being the final commander of the Japanese naval forces defending the Oroku Peninsula during the fateful Battle of Okinawa.

    [Above: Japanese defenders of the Solomon Islands. This May 1943 picture was taken in Buin, Papua New Guinea. Seated second from left is Admiral Ota, next to him General Sasaki, in the center is Admiral Samejima. Immediately behind Sasaki is Major Kamiya. Also in the photograph are eight Fleet Staff and Base Force officers.]

    Ota had a long and illustrious career before being stationed on Okinawa and being given command of 10,000 men. Ota's tactics of fighting a defensive war on Okinawa was very effective, but doomed by attrition. Eventually his brave and selfless troops simply ran out of land. With their backs to the sea and most of them weaponless, many of them led a final, hopeless charge against the murderous American juggernaut. The remaining, some 4,000 men, gave one final, suicidal assault. Admiral Ota and six of his lieutenants died honorably by their own hands.

    [Above: A death poem written on Ota's wall before his honorable suicide. 'Dying under my Emperor's flag means there was value in my being born'. ]

    On June 6, 1945, Ota sent the following telegram:

    'More than two months have passed since we engaged the invaders. In complete unity and harmony with the Army, we have made every effort to crush the enemy.

    Despite our efforts the battle is going against us. My own troops are at a disadvantage since all available heavy guns and four crack battalions of naval landing forces were allocated to Army command. Also enemy equipment is greatly superior to our own.

    I tender herewith my deepest apology to the Emperor for my failure to better defend the Empire, the grave task with which I was entrusted.

    The troops under my command have fought gallantly, in the finest tradition of the Japanese Navy. Fierce bombing and bombardments may deform the mountains of Okinawa but cannot alter the loyal spirit of our men. We hope and pray for the perpetuation of the Empire and gladly give our lives for that goal.

    To the Navy Minister and all my superior officers I tender sincerest appreciation and gratitude for their kindness of many years. At the same time, I earnestly beg you to give thoughtful consideration to the families of my men who fall at this outpost as soldiers of the Emperor.

    With my officers and men I give three cheers to the Emperor and pray for the everlasting peace of the Empire.

    Though my body decay in remote Okinawa, my spirit will persist in the defense of the homeland.'

    Completely surrounded by the enemy, he sent his final telegram, sent at 1600 hours on the 12th of June, 1945:

    'Please convey the following telegram to the Vice-Admiral.

    While the Governor should be the person to relay this report on the present condition of the Okinawa prefectural inhabitants, he has no available means of communication and the 32nd Division Headquarters appears to be thoroughly occupied with their own correspondences. However, due to the critical situations we are in, I feel compelled to make this urgent report though it is without the Governor's consent.

    Since the enemy attack began, our Army and Navy have been fighting defensive battles and have not been able to tend to the people of the Prefecture. Consequently, due to our negligence, these innocent people have lost their homes and property to enemy assault. Every man has been conscripted to partake in the defense, while women, children and elders are forced into hiding in the small underground shelters which are not tactically important or are exposed to shelling, air raids or the harsh elements of nature. Moreover, girls have devoted themselves to nursing and cooking for the soldiers and have gone as far as to volunteer in carrying ammunition, or join in attacking the enemy.

    This leaves the village people vulnerable to enemy attacks where they will surely be killed. In desperation, some parents have asked the military to protect their daughters against rape by the enemy, prepared that they may never see them again.

    Nurses, with wounded soldiers, wander aimlessly because the medical team had moved and left them behind. The military has changed its operation, ordering people to move to far residential areas, however, those without means of transportation trudge along on foot in the dark and rain, all the while looking for food to stay alive.

    Ever since our Army and Navy occupied Okinawa, the inhabitants of the Prefecture have been forced into military service and hard labor, while sacrificing everything they own as well as the lives of their loved ones. They have served with loyalty. Now we are nearing the end of the battle, but they will go unrecognized, unrewarded. Seeing this, I feel deeply depressed and lament a loss of words for them. Every tree, every plant life is gone.

    Even the weeds are burnt. By the end of June, there will be no more food. This is how the Okinawan people have fought the war. And for this reason, I ask that you give the Okinawan people special consideration, this day forward.'

    [Above: A clipping about the incident from a period Allied newspaper.]

    Okinawa.

    Over 100,000 Japanese brutally killed.

    Over 150,000 gallons of Japanese blood had been spilled defending the island.

    They died defending their homeland.

    What did the Americans die for?

    What were they defending?

    What did they travel over 10,000 miles for?

    What did they lose over 100,000 lives in the Pacific for?

    A whole generation left behind in moldering, mosquito infested graves.

    Why?

    For financial interests in New York and London.

    A nauseating truth.

    [Above: Thorvald Oljemark.]

  • Thorvald Oljemark (March 24, 1900-April 25, 1938) was a leading Finnish National Socialist. He was born in Sipoo, a municipality of Finland that has many Swedish-speaking citizens. Swedes colonized this area of Finland starting in 1150 up until the 15th century.

    At the young age of seventeen Oljemark fought in the Finnish civil war. He even co-founded a defense corps in Sipoo. Oljemark was an active and highly intelligent man, gifted in many areas, he represented the Helsinki Fencers and won the saber in the Finnish championship in 1934.

    In the late 1920s Oljemark became politically active. It deeply disturbed him seeing the damage being done to his homeland by the communists. Later, Oljemark's own father was shot and killed by communists. It was a call to action. He joined the Lapua Movement (an anti-communist movement named after the town it was founded in). The Lapua Movement was banned after they attempted a coup d'etat in 1932.

    [Above: Lapua Movement pin]

    In the 1930s Oljemark traveled to Germany to learn and study National Socialism. He even had an active correspondence with Heinrich Himmler in the years 1932-1935. Oljemark was interested in getting advice and financial support from Germany to further their similar goals and to bring National Socialism to Finland.

    [Above: A letter from Heinrich Himmler to Oljemark dated December 21, 1932. Himmler speaks of being eager to edit a book from Oljemark and signs off 'With Aryan greetings and Heil Hitler!']

    In 1932 Oljemark began publishing pro-National Socialist newspapers and magazines. And in 1933 he and another National Socialist, the famed Avri Kalsta, founded the Finnish People's Organization (SKJ). Oljemark was the head of propaganda and the party's chief of newspapers. While with the SKJ Oljemark published the magazines Wake up in Finland (1933-1934), Hakkors (which means 'swastika' in Swedish, 1933-1934), and the Swastika (1934-1937), edited by George Fresh).

    [Above: Flag of the Finnish People's Organization (SKJ)]

    [Above: A swastika flag belonging to the Finnish People's Organization (SKJ) flies beside a Finnish flag at Mikaelinkatu in Helsinki, 1933.]

    Oljemark spent his life fighting the communist takeover of his beloved homeland. He put it all on the line for his beliefs, even losing the manor his father left him due to bankruptcy from a loan used to publish National Socialist literature.

    He saw the terrible situation of the Jewish control of the banks in Finland combined with their fervor for using communism to seize control of all nations and cultures. Unfortunately his fight was cut short when he died of tuberculosis in 1938. He died childless and with no family. He never lived to see some of National Socialism's greatest triumphs, tests of human faith, and terrible temporary defeats. But all these dark years later, we salute you, Thorvald Oljemark. We recognize your service, toast to your sacrifice, and welcome you into our warrior hearts.

    [Above: Raymond Davies Hughes.]

  • Raymond Davies Hughes (August 11, 1923-April 4, 1999) was a Welsh RAF airman during WW2 who ended up finding the truth of National Socialism in the midst of war.

    When Hughes was a child his mother married his stepfather John Hughes, a bricklayer, and the family moved to the town of Mold in Flintshire, Wales. After attending Mold Council School Hughes attended secondary school at Alun School, finishing at the age of 15. He worked in a shoe store in Mold before being promoted as branch manager in Bangor.

    In 1941, with the world enveloped in war, Hughes joined the fray. He joined the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve and was chosen to fly as an air gunner. He was assigned to No. 467 Squadron of the Royal Australian Air Force and it wasn't long until he impressed his superiors enough to be recommended for a promotion to an officer.

    Fate played out on August 17, 1943 as Hughes was on his 21st mission as a gunner in a Lancaster bomber. He and his crew were involved in a raid on Peenemünde. Their bomber was hit by a German fighter and started on fire, forcing the crew to bail out. The airmen were soon captured as P.O.W.s. and Hughes and his fellow crew members were sent to Dulag Luft which was a transit camp for captured airmen near Frankfurt.

    [Above: Peenemünde technological research facility, as seen by the RAF airmen. For over 73,000 Royal Air Force men, sites like this would be the last thing they ever saw.*
    (*RAF Bomber Command Losses of the Second World War
    Roll of Honor 1939-47 - amendments and additions
    Volume 9, Appendix 1 Casualty Statistics, p484)]

    [Above: The Peenemünde research site was the most sophisticated technological facility in the world. Here a V2 'Vengeance' rocket is preparing to launch, 1943. Courtesy of the Bundesarchiv.]

    The Germans always tried to educate their P.O.W.s and show them the danger that was facing Europe. They understood that these airmen had been lied to and were unaware that their countries were being led by a subversive force, therefore the airmen were given the chance to help fight Europe's greatest enemy. Hughes saw the light of truth and agreed to help try to educate others. He went to Berlin and began to broadcast propaganda under the alias John Charles Baker. He first broadcast on Radio National and later he broadcast in Welsh and was a scriptwriter for Radio Metropole. He may have even worked with the famous broadcaster William Joyce.

    Hughes lived in freedom in Berlin, he rented an apartment and was paid 600RM a month for his work. His broadcasts were directed at Welsh troops fighting in the Italian campaign.

    In the sad days of April 1945 Hughes was arrested by MI5 while awaiting repatriation to Britain. He was charged with aiding the enemy while a P.O.W.

    Hughes waited in prison until August of that year until he finally appeared before a court martial. He pled not guilty to eleven charges of assisting the enemy. One of the charges included giving money to the recruiters of the British Free Corps (the brave men in an SS unit comprised of British and Allied P.O.W.s ). Hughes was found guilty of five of the charges. Though some of the charges carried a death penalty, he was instead sentenced to five years of hard labor. He was released on January 20, 1949 after an appeal for clemency.

    Raymond Davies Hughes died in Cheltenham, England on April 4, 1999.

    [Above: A man raises a swastika flag above the City Hall in the capital of Wales, Cardiff in 1938. The flag was hoisted along side those of Britain, France and Italy to celebrate the signing of the Munich Agreement. The flag was raised on the initiative of Cardiff's Lord Mayor, O Cuthbert Purnell.
    Purnell was criticized by Jews and Jewish opposition groups inside and outside of the government. Two agents even stole the German flag from the pole and hid it, but a replacement was quickly flown again. Opposition to this act of peace was of course absurd, but the warmongers were clamoring for the blood of Germany.
    Lord Mayor Purnell defended his choice to raise the German banner, saying:

    'I am making no apology for what I did last week.
    On the morning the news came through that war had been averted I ordered the flags of the four nations to be flown.
    This was a gesture of goodwill to the nations concerned.
    It had no political or religious significance.
    Cardiff is a port and has to maintain friendly relationship with all nations trading with us,
    and it was on that ground alone that I flew the flags.
    Were Cardiff not a great port the necessity would not have arisen.'

    [Above: The Todesrune, or the rune of death]

    'The blood of every single Englishman is too valuable to shed. Our two peoples belong together racially and traditionally. That is and always has been my aim, even if our generals can't grasp it.'
    -Adolf Hitler, from the book Churchill's War, by Louis Kilzer, p. 217, 1984

    [Above: 1935 German-English veterans meeting pin/badge]

    [Above: The grave of a British airborne soldier killed during the battle of Arnhem in September 1944. It was photographed by Allied troops in April 1945. Written on the marker are the words 'Unbekannter englischer soldat', meaning 'Unknown English soldier'. The fallen soldier's helmet hangs on the grave, while flowers grow from the grave below.]

  • The fact that the Germans took the time to individually bury, make a grave marker and plant flowers for an enemy soldier speaks volumes for their chivalry. The Allies unceremoniously buried German corpses in mass graves -- unmarked. After the war they took bulldozers to entire German soldier graveyards. To this very day they continue to defile the graves of fallen German soldiers, removing inscriptions or in many cases removing the markers entirely.

    The people of Europe didn't want the two world wars that were thrust upon them. Adolf Hitler tried tirelessly to avoid war, but the hidden tyrants wouldn't have it any other way. They needed more blood sacrifices on the altar of Europe. They needed to reestablish their enslavement of Europe which Adolf Hitler had freed. Sixty to eighty million more lives would be murdered for international finance and unquenchable greed.

    'Hitler felt he had repeatedly extended the hand of peace and friendship to the British, and each time they had blacked his eye in reply.'
    -Swedish explorer Sven Hedin, quoted in Hitler's War, by David Irving, 1979

    The Allies told their soldiers that the Germans treated their prisoners horribly, or that they took no prisoners at all, in an attempt to get their soldiers to fight harder. The reality of it was that once captured Allied soldiers were shocked by the humane treatment they received. There is a reason why a British soldier of WWII called the Waffen-SS 'The Gentlemen Soldiers'.

    The famous black American 'Tuskegee Airmen', Alexander Jefferson said that he was treated better as a German prisoner than he was treated in America! Since the Germans didn't segregate their prisoners, it was the first time in his life that he ate, slept and lived beside whites. He said the Germans showed no racism against him.

    The pictures below illustrate well that even late in the war, in the hell of the Eastern Front, the Germans had compassion for their communist enemy. Although they received none when they themselves were captured.

    It was a war of brother killing brother, the Germans and their Axis allies understood this well. Europeans of all nationalities and races continued to join and fight for Germany until the very last moments of the Third Reich. Even in the cauldron of death that was Stalingrad, Himmler mentioned that Russian soldiers continued to defect by the hundreds in the awful days before the German surrender. Even though they knew the German forces were trapped. They must have seen in those battered Axis troops more of a chance at hope than being a slave to the communist monster.

    [Above: German soldiers stand as honor guards during a ceremony held for a fallen British soldier. British P.O.W.s march by and pay their last respect to their comrade.]

    [Above: German Luftwaffe soldiers carry the casket of a fallen British RAF airmen, who was buried with full military honors. Channel Islands, 1943.]

    [Above: Flowers from the Luftwaffe. A RAF airman's last resting place. Channel Islands, 1943.]

    [Above: British soldier standing at the grave of a RAF pilot. His countryman's plane lay wrecked in the background. The inscription on the marker, which the Germans made for him, says:
    'Here lies an unknown English lieutenant, who was killed in aerial combat, 14.06.1941'.]

    [Above: A French soldier buried by the Germans. He died on May 20, 1940.]

    [Above: 'Fratricidio!' (Fratricide!) This fascist Italian poster by artist Gino Boccasile illustrates the fratricidal nature of the war -- and those responsible: the Allies. Americans are seen here laughing in the background. Click the image to see more!]

    [Above: Honoring a courageous enemy: A Royal Air Force procession escorts the remains of two German pilots, August Schleicher and Kurt Seydel, whose Ju-88 bomber was shot down during a raid upon a naval base on the coast of Scotland on Oct 16, 1939. The funeral was conducted in Edinburgh on Oct 21, 1939. Ten thousand people lined the route to Portobello's St. Philip's Church.
    Pipers from the squadron which had downed the two pilots played the traditional Scottish song 'Over The Sea To Skye'. Their coffins were draped in German National Socialist flags in the church itself where two wreaths were laid. One message read 'To two brave airmen from the mother of an airman' and 'With the deep sympathy of Scottish mothers'. Click to see more!]

    [Above: German WWII POWs imprisoned in an Ottawa, Canada POW camp, attending a funeral for a fallen comrades. It is shocking how elaborate this is! It is interesting that the Canadian authorities let them have such an intricate National Socialist ceremony. The propaganda hadn't hit yet about how evil the 'nazis' were!]

    [Above: The German Wehrmacht buries the bodies of a French and an English soldier that washed ashore, with full military honors -- including a band.]

    [Above: The flag of National Socialism drapes the coffin of a German P.O.W. during a funeral in Camp Swift, German P.O.W. camp, Texas, USA.]

    [Above: German P.O.W.s hold a funeral ceremony for General Hans Schubert. National Archives.]

    [Above: Funeral at Camp Robinson, Arkansas. U.S. Army Photo.]

    [Above: Funeral at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. National Archives.]

    [Above: Another picture of the funeral at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri.]

    [Above: This funeral is from March 1943 for German pilots Leutnant Paul Kohn, Unteroffizier Gerhard Donzyk and Claus Prodehl who crashed at Gants Hill Illford on 14/15 March 1943. There are no Germans present, only English Royal Air Force officers. Source: The Blitz -Then and Now" Volume 3.]

    [Above: German paratroopers carry a badly wounded British soldier. Is his foot blown off?]

    [Above: A German soldier aids a Canadian medic with a wounded German soldier.]

    [Above: Two Soviet prisoners, one wounded, are treated on the battlefield by a Scharführer of one of Das Reich panzergrenadier companies, during Operation Zitadelle in July 1943. Part one.]

    [Above: Two Soviet prisoners, one wounded, are treated on the battlefield by a Scharführer of one of Das Reich panzergrenadier companies, during Operation Zitadelle in July 1943. Part two.]

    [Above: Two Soviet prisoners, one wounded, are treated on the battlefield by a Scharführer of one of Das Reich panzergrenadier companies, during Operation Zitadelle in July 1943. Part three.]

    'the unnatural sight of cold dead men scattered over the hillsides and in the ditches along
    the high rows of hedge throughout the world.
    Dead men by mass production -- in one country after another -- month after month and
    year after year.
    Dead men in winter and dead men in summer.
    Dead men in such familiar promiscuity that they become monotonous.
    Dead men in such monstrous infinity that you come to almost hate them.'
    --Ernie Pyle, April 1945, this column was found on his body after he was killed

    [Above: Chivalry was an SS ideal. Here a Waffen-SS soldier gives water to his wounded enemy, a Russian soldier.]

    [Above: German medics of the 260th Infantry Division help a badly wounded Soviet soldier. Other Soviet soldiers have been tended to in the background as well. Belarus (Bellorussia) 1941.]

    [Above: Waffen-SS soldiers give aid to an injured Soviet pilot after his Polikarpov U-2 plane used for daytime reconnaissance and night bombing missions was shot down in the summer of 1943.]

    [Above: Luftwaffe medics tend to a wounded Soviet POW with a badly wounded arm.]

    [Above: Field medics of 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking tend to a shellshocked Soviet POW with injured legs.]

    [Above: A Wehrmacht soldier talks to a Soviet soldier who has just been tended to by German medics.]

    [Above: German motorcycle dispatch soldier tends to wounded Russian civilians who were caught in the midst of battle.]

    In a rare display of chivalry, sometimes even the Russians showed respect to their German enemies.

    'First Lieutenant Wolfgang Betzler was congratulated by a Soviet soldier on his medals and given a hat by another when he lost his own, while SS Hauptsturmführer Kurt Portugall recalls:

    After asking for my name, rank, and unit, they offered me a piece of bread and vodka, remarking that I had probably not had anything to eat or drink for days and must be hungry.... The heat of the room made me break out in a sweat. This Russian major told me to open my camouflage suit. When I did so, he studied my stripes, SS runes, and medals with interest. Then he said: "I have great respect for the soldiers of the Waffen SS. You will now be transported to our hinterland. In our base there are as many bastards as in yours. I advise you to take off the SS runes and medals; it would be better for your health. I don't want your medals, none of us here wants them, because we are members of the guard units, who are the Russian Waffen SS.'
    -The Siege of Budapest by Krisztián Ungváry, Pg. 337

    Before the lies and propaganda buried the truth about the National Socialists and the SS they were known by their enemies for their chivalry, outstanding bravery and superb fighting style. It says a lot that this Russian officer even refers to his units as Waffen-SS.

  • Prisoners of War: Poland

    [Above: Polish prisoners of war, 1939.]

    [Above: Polish prisoners of war, 1939.]

  • Click here to see more pictures of Polish prisoners of war

  • Prisoners of War: Russia

    [Above: A column of Russian prisoners of war captured in Kiev. This photo is titled 'The biggest destructive battle of world history around Kiev with 665,000 prisoners'!]

    [Above: Russian soldiers captured during the Battle of Smolensk, August 1941]

    [Above: Stalin's son Yakov Djugashvili after being captured by the Germans. The Germans offered to do a prisoner trade with the Russians, but Stalin considered ANYONE captured a traitor, including his own son!!!]

  • Click here to see more pictures of Russian prisoners of war

  • Prisoners of War: America

    [Above: American soldiers surrendered by the thousands during the Ardennes Offensive (Battle of the Bulge). Courtesy of the Bundesarchiv.]

    [Above: After the slow advance into the Krinkelt-Rocherath area, the 1.SS-Panzer-Division ‘LSSAH’ took hundreds of American prisoners. Shown here is a stream of American soldiers taken during the first three days of fighting. Note the Iron Cross decorated Waffen-SS soldier standing on the front/right of the picture.]

    But there were some who wished only death and destruction upon their racial kinsmen and fellow man. Winston Churchill and his monsters took great glee in murdering civilians, in fact, they purposely targeted them. They even went as far as ordering their bombers to bypass strategic targets to bomb civilian centers!

    'I do not want suggestions as to how we can disable the economy and the machinery of war; what I want are suggestions as to how we can roast the German refugees on their escape from Breslau.'
    -Winston Churchill, from the book Die Unvollendete, by Juan Maler, p. 27

    Winston Churchill was a mass murderer plain and simple, and one that cared not if the victims were women and children. He also cared not how much pain his victims endured before their deaths, in fact, he seemed to delight in it. Here are a few more quotes from the monster that today's tyrants call a 'great man' and a 'hero'.

    'Perhaps the next time round the way to do it will be to kill women, children and the civilian population.'
    -Winston Churchill, quoted during the First World War

    'I do not understand the squeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favor of using poisonous gas against uncivilized tribes.'
    -Churchill, writing as president of the Air Council (1919)

    But of course, Churchill was too big of a coward to do any of the killing himself. He was a mass murderer by proxy. He would never have risked his own overfed, cowardly self. He had lots of little wind up soldiers to do the devil's dirty work.

    His bullshit speech - much shoved down our throats over the years - delivered to the House of Commons on June 4, 1940, should have said:

    You shall go on to the end,
    You shall fight in France,
    You shall fight on the seas and oceans,
    You shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air,
    You shall defend my Island, whatever the cost may be,
    You shall die on the beaches,
    You shall die on the landing grounds,
    You shall die in the fields and in the streets,
    You shall die in the hills;
    You shall never surrender...

    [Above: An American soldiers breaks down.]

    ...and for what?
    So that your grandchildren would become a minority in the land that your forefathers died for?
    So that your descendants would be poorer with each generation?
    So that banks and foreign governments could control every inch of America?
    So that drug overdose would become the number one cause of death?
    So that your great-grandchildren would have to drink and do drugs to endure the wretched state of the world you helped shape?
    So that 'special interest groups' could decide your laws and policies?
    So that you wouldn't recognize your own country in two generations?
    So that your grandchildren would be taught to hate their own race and its accomplishments?
    So that your beloved America would become flooded with illegal aliens?
    So that promiscuity, homosexuality and all forms of degeneracy would become a norm?
    So that the murder of millions of unborn babies would become a woman's 'right'?
    So that our food would become poisonous to fill the pockets of the 1%?
    So that billions of our tax dollars could be shipped to a terrorist state in the Middle East?
    So that your religion could be perverted and its leaders predators of children?
    So that your politicians could sell us out to the highest bidder?
    So that you could murder millions of your racial kinsmen who only wanted to save us from the horror you were deceived to die for?
    So that your great-grandchildren would curse and despise you for the hell they'd been handed?

    [Above: The Unknown Warriors.]

    Nearly 400,000 British soldiers died during WWII, with many more maimed, physically and mentally. An astonishing 50 percent of bomber pilots lost their lives during airborne sorties (The Bombing War by Richard Overy).

    A 2009 British book that catalogued the views of many veterans of WWII, called The Unknown Warriors, by Nicholas Pringle, showed that an overwhelming majority agreed that their sacrifices were in vain, saying that 'it's not our country anymore.' One of the writer's questions to the ex-servicemen was 'Are you happy with how your country has turned out? What do you think your fallen comrades would have made of life in 21st-century Britain?' The answers were almost unanimously ones of grave disappointment and profound betrayal. With scathing words like:

    ' 'This Land of Hope and Glory is in reality a land of yobs, drug addicts, drunkard youths and teenage mothers', '[It is as if] we had served our country to the full and were then forgotten', 'I sing no song for the once-proud country that spawned me, and I wonder why I ever tried', 'My patriotism has gone out the window', 'If I had my time again, would we fight as before? Need you ask?', 'Our country has been given away to foreigners...', 'Those comrades of mine who never made it back would be appalled if they could see the world as it is today', 'as I look around parts of Birmingham today you would never know you were in England', 'I am very unhappy about the way this country is being transformed. I go nowhere after dark. I don't even answer my doorbell then', 'This is not the country I fought for' and 'Our culture is draining away and we are forbidden to say anything.'

    They nearly unanimously declared that politicians were 'liars, incompetents and self-aggrandising charlatans'.

    They lamented helplessly that their letters of complaint to politicians went unanswered. It was like they were invisible, forgotten, discarded, except on Remembrance Day, when they were paraded before the public. They rightfully felt betrayed. They were lied to on a profound scale. They unknowingly helped the forces of evil win a war against that of good, and now there was nothing they could do about it. They had been told that they were heroes, but they now realized that they were nothing more than mercenaries and fodder.

    [Above: The national emblem of Indonesia - Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (from Old Javanese: 'Unity in Diversity')

  • The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies, later to be called Indonesia) was a Dutch colony which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. It was a source of many important raw materials, like rubber, oil, copper, nickel, gold and coal. Needless to say 'someone' got very rich off the backs of the indigenous peoples.

    The occupation was the source of much suffering and death. But finally, freedom and independence came in sight. The mighty and ancient empire of Japan, which had never been defeated in its history, sought to free Asia from its oppressors.

    [Above: Dutch imperial art of the Dutch East Indies from 1916. The text reads 'Our most precious jewel'.]

    In January 1942 the Netherlands, Britain and even the United States tried in vain to defend the Dutch East Indies from the liberating Japanese forces. They were no match for the determined Japanese troops and on March 8, 1942 the Royal Dutch East Indies Army surrendered in Java.

    The Japanese worked closely with the indigenous people and even hired people to help them understand local culture and customs to build an atmosphere of respect. It was the first time that local people could work in government and administrative positions. The Japanese even encouraged nationalism amongst the population, something the Dutch had repressed violently.

    [Above: Japanese Kempeitai (military police) in Indonesia.]

    The leaders forged close links with the masses under Japanese supervision. The Japanese were guiding the people to forging a government of their own. They promised them that they would be granted independence, and in 1945 they fulfilled that promise, granting them total independence.

    There were many brave and patriotic men who fought and worked for Indonesian independence during Dutch occupation, but we'll look at two of the most high profile: Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta.

    [Above: Two Japanese Indonesian posters. The one on the left says:
    'Well fought and well done - Japan's greatest joy is to give you complete Independence by defeating America, yours and our common enemy.'

    The poster on the right:
    'Following the UK and the USA is like following evil going to hell'.]

  • Click here to see more Japanese/Indonesian posters and magazines

    'The Lord be praised, God showed me the way; in that valley of the Ngarai I said:
    Yes, Independent Indonesia can only be achieved with Dai Nippon...
    For the first time in all my life, I saw myself in the mirror of Asia.'

    -Sukarno

    [Above: Sukarno.]

  • Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

    Sukarno was a top leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands. He had been involved in Indonesia's nationalist movement for many years, and even spent over a decade in Dutch prisons. Like the liberating armies of Europe that freed people like the great Leon Degrelle from a French dungeon, the Japanese armies freed Sukarno and patriots like him. It must have been a great feeling suddenly learning that your occupiers, your oppressors, have been defeated and that you are to be freed, that what was criminal before is now a virtue.

    [Above: Sukarno, 1959.]

    Sukarno and his fellow patriots worked closely with the Japanese government and garnered support for the war effort. The Allies attempted to insert spies and agents into the government but nearly all of their efforts failed horribly. Not only were their agents arrested almost immediately after landing, but their secret radios were then used by the Japanese to transmit false information back to Allied intelligence.

    'Sukarno was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood.'
    -Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer

    Sukarno was helped by the Japanese with the formation of 'Pembela Tanah Air' (PETA) and 'Heiho' (Indonesian volunteer army troops). He garnered support and volunteers via speeches broadcast on the Japanese radio and loud speaker networks across Java and Sumatra. The results were massive. Nearly two million recruits were massed by mid-1945. These troops were planned to be used when the Allied forces came to reoccupy Java.

    On November 10, 1943 Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta (profiled below) embarked on a seventeen day tour of Japan, where they were decorated by the Emperor Hirohito for their work. They were also presented with dinner and drinks at the house of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in Tokyo.

    The United States considered Sukarno one of the 'foremost collaborationist leaders.'

    On August 9, 1945 Japanese Field Marshal Terauchi gave Sukarno the words he had waited most of his life to hear: Indonesia is free. He was given the green light to proceed with preparation for Indonesian independence, free of Japanese oversight.

    But all was not roses for the years to come. Incredibly rough times lay ahead, but Sukarno fought on and became Indonesia's first president.

    [Above: Sukarno and his young Japanese wife Devi. Sukarno was known for being a ladies' man. Click to see more pictures.]

    [Above: Another shot of Devi.]

    [Above: Sukarno was an extremely charismatic world leader. Here he is with John F. Kennedy.]

    [Above: Sukarno also met many celebrities. Here he is with Marilyn Monroe. Sukarno had expressed a desire to meet Miss Monroe, who he said was one of the favorite actresses. This picture was taken in Beverly Hills, USA, 1956.]

    [Above: Sukarno and the King. Sukarno is seen here with Hal Wallis, Elvis Presley and Joan Blackman. USA, 1960. The original caption erroneously calls Sukarno the king of Burma.]

    [Above: India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, right, toasts the president of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser, left, with Sukarno in the middle. This picture was taken during a reception held by Nehru for African and Asian nations' chiefs of state and delegates to the United Nations. New York, September 29, 1960 ]

    'I'd volunteer to go to prison, as long as there are books. Because with books I am free.'
    -Mohammad Hatta

    [Above: Mohammad Hatta, 1950.]

  • Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 – March 14, 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president and later also served as the country's prime minister. Along with Sukarno, he was a major force who fought for Indonesia's independence from the Dutch.

    Hatta, a Muslim, was educated in Europe and also like Sukarno spent time behind bars during his fight for his country's independence. Most famously was his June 1927 arrest when Dutch authorities raided his home and arrested Hatta and four other activists. They spent six months in prison before the Dutch authorities took them to trial in the Hague.

    Hatta masterfully explained his country's need for independence, explaining that the two countries would always be in conflict as long as it remained a colony. But he also left open the possibility of the two countries cooperating, but only if Indonesia was independent and treated as an equal partner, not unequally because of its status as a colony.

    The speech became famous and it is known as the Free Indonesia speech.

    [Above: Mohammad Hatta.]

    In 1929, Hatta and other Indonesia activists were released from Dutch prisons. In the years that followed Hatta worked relentlessly for his cause. He wrote many articles and a book, worked for independence organizations and was jailed again and again.

    In 1935 the colonial government had had enough of Hatta and they exiled him. If they thought that this would stop him they were very wrong. His fight went on.

    To make money to live during his exile, Hatta continued to write articles and earned money giving his colleagues lessons on economics, history, and philosophy. These lessons would eventually be made into books entitled 'An Introduction on the Way to Knowledge' and 'The Nature of Greek Thought' (four volumes). Hatta had a deep love of knowledge and books, in fact when he was exiled from Jakarta he took with him sixteen chests of books!

    In 1942, after the East Indies were freed from Dutch colonial occupation by the liberating Japanese armies, Hatta returned to Jakarta. Once there he met with Japanese Major General Harada, the Interim Head of Government. Like Sukarno, Hatta was asked to be an advisor. He first asked General Harada if the Japanese planned on colonizing Indonesia like the Dutch. He was assured that the Japanese had no plans to do such.

    Hatta and Sukarno were alas united after many disagreements in the past. They were the Japanese government's intermediary with the Indonesian people.

    Hatta feverishly worked with the Japanese government in the years that followed. He firmly expressed the fact that Japan was the protector and the light of Asia.

    In November 1943, Hatta and Sukarno's tireless work with Japan was recognized by Emperor Hirohito who, after a tour of Japan, decorated them each with awards in Tokyo.

    The years ahead saw the Japanese fulfilling their promise of granting Indonesia independence. But the Dutch were not willing to give up their cash cow so easy. Fighting commenced and Hatta found himself meeting with world leaders to gain support for Indonesia.

    In August 1949, in a twist of irony, Hatta returned to the Hague. But this time not as a prisoner, but as the head of a delegation for a Round Table conference toward Indonesian independence.

    Hatta served his country in and out of office and as a true patriot his entire life. He is rightfully viewed today as one of Indonesia's greatest sons. His honesty and integrity followed him always.

    [Above: Mohammad Hatta on a 2002 postage stamp]

    'Hey British soldiers! As long as the Indonesian bulls, the youth of Indonesia, have red blood that can make a piece of white cloth, red and white, we will never surrender. Friends, fellow fighters, especially the youth of Indonesia, we will fight on, we will expel the colonialists from our Indonesian land that we love... Long have we suffered, been exploited, trampled on. Now is the time for us to seize our independence. Our slogan: FREEDOM OR DEATH. ALLAHU AKBAR!... ALLAHU AKBAR!... ALLAHU AKBAR!... FREEDOM!'
    -Bung Tomo, extract from November 9, 1945 speech

    [Above: Sutomo.]

  • Sutomo (October 3, 1920 – October 7, 1981) is best known for his role as an Indonesian military leader during the Indonesian National Revolution against the Netherlands. He played an important central role in the Battle of Surabaya when the Dutch attacked the city in October and November 1945. Such actions gained the attention of the world and helped Indonesia gain independence.

    During the Japanese occupation he worked for the D’mei Tsushin (news agency) in Surabaya. Sutomo also gained fame and recognition for setting up Radio Pembarontakan (Radio Rebellion), which promoted solidarity and a fighting spirit among the Indonesian youth.

    Sutomo was responsible for inspiring thousands of Indonesians to action with his radio broadcasts. He had a very distinctive, emotional speaking style and was a no nonsense patriot. He was described as having 'clear, burning eyes... [a] penetrating, slightly nasal voice... [a] hair-raising oratorical style that [was] second only to Sukarno's in its emotional power'.

    Sutomo, a devout Muslim, was a fearless patriot. After the war he stood up to both Sukarno and Hatta, and his relationship with both men soured due to these instances.

    On April 11, 1978 he was arrested for his outspoken criticism of government corruption and abuses of power and spent three years in prison! Even when he was released he continued his fight for what was right and continued voicing his opinions.

    He declared that he did not want to be buried in the Heroes' Cemetery because it was full of what he described as 'fairweather heroes', which meant men who had lacked the courage to fight for the nation during times of crisis, but during peace they came out of the woodwork in public to glorify their achievements.

    He stuck to his word. On October 7, 1981 Sutomo died in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during his Hajj pilgrimage. Due to his long fight for Indonesia and his military rank he had the right to be buried in the Heroes' Cemetery, but instead he was laid to rest in a public cemetery at Ngagel, Surabaya, East Java.

    A warrior for the people until the end.

    [Above: Sutomo.]

  • Below are currency notes from the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies/Indonesia. These were used during WWII and, oddly, sometimes even after. After the war there was much internal strife in Indonesia, from internal fighting to invading Dutch troops. In various areas, held by each of the warring factions, Japanese occupation currency was still treated as valid and was given an exchange rate in Gulden and Rupiahs until such time that the Dutch relinquished control and withdrew from Indonesia.

    [Above: Japanese occupation Tien Gulden note for Indonesia.]

  • Click here to see more Japanese occupation currency from this set

    [Above: Japanese occupation Ten Roepiah note for Indonesia. This note set preceded the set above and is considerably more rare since it came right at the end of the war (1944).]

  • Click here to see more Japanese occupation currency from this set

    [Above: Japanese occupation postage stamps for Indonesia.]

  • Click here to see more Japanese occupation postage stamps and related items for Indonesia

    [Above: Rosa Maria Amodio]

  • Rosa Maria Amodio was a young primary school teacher, in her early twenties, when she enthusiastically joined the Auxiliary Corps of the Italian Social Republic. Patriotic, young and idealistic, she wanted to make a difference and stand by what she believed in.

    For this she would DIE.

    In a democracy you are only allowed free speech as long as you are saying what is approved by the state. After WWII untold thousands were imprisoned and many even were murdered for merely speaking their minds and for having a different opinion of the world then the almighty victors. Writers, journalists, authors and researchers were rounded up by the Allies after the war and imprisoned. Some were even thrown into insane asylums, like Ezra Pound and Knut Hamsun. Others were simply murdered, executed by the state, for speaking out against the Allies, as journalists, such as France's Robert Brasillach and Germany's Julius Streicher.

    Rosa Amodio was kidnapped shortly after the war and paraded through the streets by communists. Sometime later she was sentenced to death in absentia by a kangaroo court set up to merely give murder a semblance of legality. It was a fascist witch hunt where communists and other scum settled personal vendettas and lashed out at their enemies.

    Rosa's friends and relatives pleaded with her to leave the area, and sometime in the spring of 1945 she moved away from her home in Savona. By now everyone had learned of what the communists did to women who had belonged to the auxiliary body of the Italian Social Republic. Public shaming was the least terrible act, many women were gang raped and then murdered.

    [Above: Rosa being paraded through the streets by commie cowards]

    [Above: Close-up]

    Rosa eventually returned to her home and family in Savona where she resumed teaching and things seemed to be returning to normal. She was an excellent teacher, beloved by her students.

    But the communist monsters did not forget Rosa. They waited for the right time to take her young life. Almost three years after the war, on August 14, 1947, they had their opportunity.

    It was late in the afternoon and Rosa was riding her bicycle when she was approached by a death squad composed of three 'people'. One of these cowards held a .22 caliber pistol with a silencer hidden between a folded newspaper. They stepped in front of her bicycle and opened fire. One of the cowardly shots hit her in the neck, killing her.

    She laid on the street in a gathering pool of blood while her killers escaped. No one tried to help her. They were terrified that it could happen to them next. Eventually someone covered her lifeless body in a sheet. No one came forward to talk about what happened. The killers responsible were a part of a brutal crime organization run by communists and ex-partisans.

    In the following years a compulsive liar was conveniently pegged for her murder, but predictably the weapon was never found. Also convenient, the 'killer' died in prison of 'tuberculosis'.

    Rosa's boyfriend fearlessly spoke out against this travesty, and even began to investigate her murder himself. No one else was going to do it. He didn't get far, however. The killers of his loved one sent him a warning: on the door of his house they placed TNT!

    Rosa Maria Amodio's killers were never charged. Her soul will never rest, roaming the dark streets of Savona, waiting for justice that will probably never come.



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